Conference at Tongli Town, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China, June 13-15, 2013

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4th Urban Space & Social Life: City Development, Preservation, and Hospitality


Date: June 13-15, 2013

Location: Tongli Town (a traditional water village)

Organizer: 4C5M Studio

Co-organizer: World Heritage Institute of Training and Research for Asia and the Pacific Region under the auspices of UNESCO (WHITRAP Shanghai)

Host: Tongli Township Government, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China

Support: College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai, China & Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning & Design Institute (TJUPDI)




  1. LIN Gang Qiang, Vice Director of The Administration Committee of Lili Old Town, Fenhu Economic Development Zone, Wujiang, Suzhou

    Exploring the Approaches of Effective Use of Heritage Buildings: Case of Tongli

  2. ZHANG Jijiao, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Science, Beijing, China

    Chinese Old Brand Enterprise: Cultural Preservation and Urban Development

  3. Marco Cristofori, professional photographer, Spain

    Harmony between Contemporary and Historical Architecture: A State of Mind in the Expressive Power in Photography

  4. Hirochika Nakamaki, Suita City Museum, Japan

    An Ethnological Interpretation of Social Life in Senri New Town, Osaka

  5. Sharon Zukin, Brooklyn College and the City University of New York Graduate Center, USA

    Shopping, Aesthetics, and Urban Change

  6. Bill Boler, Business in Community, London, UK

    Redeveloping Communities: Beyond Bricks and Mortar

  7. Mark Jayne, University of Manchester, UK

    Hospitality and City Twinning: Territorial and Relational Urbanism

  8. ZHANG Renbiao, Tongji University, China

    Deconstruction and Reconstruction: A New Spatial Perspective of Urbanization-from “Geographic-Physical-Economic” Dimension to ‘Cultural-Psychological-Social” Dimension



1) Tou Chuang CHANG

National University of Singapore, Singapore


From Shophouses to a Kampong: Local Arts Spaces in Global Singapore


Singapore’s ambitious Renaissance City plans (with a total of three plans covering 2000-2004, 2005-2007, 2008-2012) are aimed at developing a “Global City for the Arts”.  An important dimension of the plans is to provide adequate and suitable ‘local’ spaces for artists and arts organisations to work in and feel a sense of belonging to. Providing space for new uses has always been a challenge in Singapore. In the field of arts and culture, this challenge has been met through the Arts Housing Scheme, a programme spearheaded by the National Arts Council (NAC) dedicated to identifying and converting old buildings (and in some cases, developing new buildings) to serve as suitable housing for the arts. The Arts Housing Scheme was replaced in 2011 by a new Framework for Arts Spaces which seeks to house arts/cultural groups in reconverted school compounds.


This paper will consider two arts housing projects – the Little India Arts Belt (representing the old housing scheme) and the Goodman Arts Centre (the pilot arts centre under the new framework). In Little India, select historic shophouses were redeveloped by the state and

leased to artists at highly subsidised rates for use as their office, studio, administrative, rehearsal and performance space.  In Goodman Arts Centre, the former Tun Seri Lanang Secondary School (1962 to 1995; subsequently LASALLE College of the Arts, 1992-2007; and School of the Arts, 2007-2009) was reconverted into a new arts compound comprising 43 artists/organisations, shared arts venues and studios, two eateries and the corporate office of the NAC. Although a relatively new space, it has already established a sense of kampong spirit among its tenants through collaborative events and outreach programmes (kampong refers to ‘communal village’ in the Malay language).


A number of comparative issues will be explored in the study of the two arts spaces. They include: (a) the practice of conserving and adapting/reusing old buildings for the arts, and how artists feel about the matter; (b) the role and motivations of the state (and in the case of Goodman Arts Centre, the private sector too) in creating arts spaces; (c) the socio-cultural networks that develop between artists as they share a common space; (d) outreach programmes that bring the arts to the immediate neighbourhood; and (e) the ‘inspirational’ role of the environment in artistic outputs. Regardless of the arts scheme, it is argued that ‘Geography Matters’. More than just a quantitative measure of how much arts spaces is created, artists and arts organisations are far more concerned about the quality of space and the ways in which the socio-cultural and physical environment stimulates creativity, interactivity and connectivity.  


2) Ali Cheshmehzangi

The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China


Holistic approach to measuring socio-spatiality of a public space

Unlike the scientific research, architectural research can be very comprehensive; not only to follow a chain of research steps but rather to evaluate and analyse data and information in a systematic approach. Although social research methods are categorised in two major methodical approaches of quantitative and qualitative, they are often conducted together for a better outcome of research. Thus, research methodology is probably the most crucial and challenging part of a research project, which in a general sense, is normally defined as an analytical procedure that needs to be done to suggest discussions and then possible suggestions. It is the main body of practice that employs the theoretical knowledge into a critical and analytical practice. As a result, for a research programme, the understanding of the science of method is a major concern. A systematic strategy towards selecting the research methodology would also enable the researcher to determine research values and identify research limitations. In this context, this research paper would examine and introduce a holistic approach to measuring socio-spatiality of a public place. Exploring both the theoretical and practical implications of behavioural, social and perceptual analysis approaches, this research study would then include examining research constraints and possibilities in order to utilise a comprehensive research design model. Finally, this study would suggest developed methods of understanding and measuring socio-spatiality of a public place that can then support the spatial design, performance and inter-relation values to developing relations between humans and their environments.


 Key words: Socio-Spatiality; Public Place; Holistic; Measurement; Inter-relation


3) Ali Cheshmehzangi

The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China


Shaoming LU

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, USA


The Land-use and typology analysis of retail units in the RENOVATED OLD TOWNS: The case of Shanghai Old town

Renovation of historic old towns happens globally and retailing is often the major land-use for such cases. This theme of urban renovation is not new and is expected to happen even more as the cultural matters are becoming crucial factors of urban regeneration and design. Nowadays, many research studies are undertaken to understanding the socio-cultural values and visual characteristics of these particular urban areas. Nevertheless, studies to evaluate the actual typology of uses and retail units, in particular, are not considered much in the context of historical urban renovation. Through a mapping analysis of a very distinct case study in the City of Shanghai, this study would explore the relations between the typology of both renovated and new retail units with social use of the places in between the buildings to examining the socio-spatial concerns, façade interactions and liveability of the renovated districts. This research study would undertake an exploratory but critical analysis of the Old Town of Shanghai (Shanghai LaoJie in particular) and would evaluate how people may come to using the places in such renovated districts. In face of the globalising theme of urban tourism and urban branding, this research study will elaborate upon the importance of typology of retail units on identity and narrative of a place. This study will further explore the understanding and the implications of the land-use and typologies of retail units in the renovated old towns to developing social interactions and spatial values that are beyond just visual characteristics of a place.

Key words: Land-Use; Renovation; Identity; Historical Urban; Urban Tourism


4) Annapaola Cipolloni

LVEP- Landscape Consultants Luis Vallejo Studio, Madrid – Spain


Ephemeral Gardens as a laboratory of ideas for raising the urban space values


Ephemeral gardens are green spaces whose main characteristic is transience: they have a short life!  In this short period of time, they must be able to express their semantic value. This allows a high degree of design freedom in designing them, because they belong to the world of creativity without restrictions, where experimentation – in terms of space, forms and materials – is very advanced.

They are carried out to explore possible scenarios as far as green design is concerned – both urban and private – and gives rise to models of reality in a smaller scale.

The genre draws on the tradition of courtly Baroque Italian Garden, where the sense of theatricality and the ephemeral were essential components of the represented space.

In the course of history there have always been “receptive” spaces that are spaces that are suitable for experimentation and progressive introduction of elements of “wonder”, such as grotesque figures, hedges, geometric parterres, topiary sculptures, water games, lights, colors and sounds.

Ephemeral gardens can be used as a laboratory of ideas for decorating and rising of the aesthetic values of urban space, to invent new spaces that communicate emotions and to experience new languages.

Urban spaces abandoned to the unrestricted domination of cars, building areas or open spaces in gardens and urban parks, may be ideal scenarios for the making of these installations.

5) Robert Compton

State University of New York College at Oneonta, USA


The Urban-Rural Divide and the Social Construction of Nationalism in East Asia


Rural nostalgia and urban progressivity often represent both contradictory and complementary symbols regarding nationalism.  The social construction of nationalism requires political leaders to skillfully maneuver both traditional and modern notions of identity around which nationalism is built.  My paper examines the comparative social construction of nationalism in Japan, China, and Korea through the uses of contradictory and complementary narratives involving urban and rural life.  These symbols can buttress or undermine social cohesion and legitimacy within societies depending on the mode and timing of deployment.  It concludes that skillful political leadership requires sensitivity to urban and rural realities if the social construction of nationalism, through which political legitimacy is derived, is to succeed.


6) Irma Desiyana

Chongqing University, China


Dissecting the Social – Spatial Form of Inequalities in Colonial City


This paper examines the urban colonialism in Batavia, old Jakarta, that discusses from multi-dimensional aspects; economic motivation, social segregation, political control and city planning to find the pattern and evolution of urban and social form. Colonialism brings cultural phenomenon, heterogeneous city and inequalities issues; hence Batavia city planning should represent colonialism praxis that already occurred for more than three centuries. Using empirical study, Batavia is observed by literature, both texts – history and images – maps. Batavia city planning would be analysed based on different authorities and policies. In the beginning of colonialism praxis in Batavia, the fortress city was built which depicted fear and the power of the colonizer, control, defense and boundary of the city, imitation of the Netherlands without local weather concern and social segregation in the city. The Ciliwung River had a crucial role as the gate of international trade and colonialism and the main axis of the colonial city form, hereafter colonialism had changed traditional city – organic form to westernized city – geometrical form. Furthermore the Fortress City planning created urban disease thus it moved to Weltervreden, outside the fortress city. The city networking system had altered from water to road mode following technology and policy development. Social and racial segregation were carefully planned to limit and control the social movements where every colony was signed by religious building and cemetery. By dissecting urban colonialism in Batavia, the colonial city planning due to the colonizer policies symbolizes the social and spatial inequality as the main control of colonialism.


7) HUANG WenXian

Guangxi Arts Institute, China

Fang XU

University of New South Wales, Australia


Protective Development versusDestructive Developmentstudying “ZhenWuGe”  a traditional building at Rong County, Guangxi, China


Traditional buildings are the evidences of the history carrying the codes of human civilization, which reflects the cultural values of the past covering politic, social, arts, folk customs, etc.  However, these imbedded values might not be able to sustain when the traditional buildings themselves are situated in the position that both commercial and political forces overly interfere it.  In the Chinese architecture history, there were too many similar phenomena – attach importance to the construction but despise protection.  Under the circumstance of the high-speed economic development of the society today, many valuable traditional buildings, small villages and towns that evidences the long history of the places have been destroyed.   Driven by political motivation and power, many construction plans controlled by local governments are often lack of appropriate debates and thorough examination. As the result, they actually become destructive forces.  Particularly in the remote and isolated regions, in the name of modernization, many traditional buildings are facing the dangers of “destructive development”.


This paper critically examines these controlled plans through exploring the problems behind the phenomena.  Using an old heritage timber building – “ZhenWuGe” as a case study in the region, the paper identifies a number of key issues involving in proper protection of these traditional buildings.  By initiating a new principle of “protective development”, it can help to overcome many problems caused by the approach of “destructive development” in the practice.


8) HUANG Wenxian; XU Fang; DENG Yan; LIU Qiping

Guangxi Arts Institute, China & University of New South Wales, Australia


The Research of the Revival Design of Ancient Town in Guangxi, China: Taking Daxu

Ancient Town in Guilin as an experimental example


Under the massive urbanization and modernization, many small historical towns and villages – their old buildings, blocks and the surrounding environment are disappearing in China. In the name of protection, many practices of current development for these old villages and towns have been exposed either maintained excessively or developed excessively, due to a single or static perspective. How to properly deal with those valuable remains, balancing cultural value protection and economical development, is becoming an urgent issue to challenge the current practice for designers. Taking Daxu ancient town in Guilin, Guangxi province as a case study, the authors have engaged in several months’ experimental exercise for the project, and intended to break those existing inertial thinking and approaches.

Based on comprehensive site investigation and analysis, the exercise starts with the research of the architectural environment and ecologically sustainable philosophy, uses the method of architecture environment planning combining with the principle of autochthonous cultural protection. Meanwhile, the authors critically examine the other practical examples and experience, and identify the constraints behind these inappropriate methods. Furthermore, the research puts forward an alternative approach, which focuses on reviving the life of the old town and village by creating a more engaging experience for people both as residents and visitors. 

The successful experimental approach generated from this project can serve as a new way to approach the future solution in dealing with the reform of old villages and towns and the construction of new rural and village in China.


Keywords: old town & village, Guangxi, architectural environment, experimental approach


9) Ravi Karan

ML Design, Australia


Transformative Nature of Design


Experimentations in residential design have, over time, influenced the quality of the public urban environment in the city of Brisbane, Australia. Despite being the third largest capital city in the country, Brisbane has long maintained a leisurely lifestyle. It may not boast a harbor as spectacular as Sydney, or embody the sophistication of Melbourne, but nonetheless, its pleasant sub-tropical climate and lifestyle are signature characteristics of the city. During the 1990s, experimental approaches to sub-tropical living began to emerge as architects and designers re-interpreted traditional attitudes that existed between the built environment and natural setting by reconsidering the concept of ‘enclosure’ in residential architecture. So successful were the results, that many of these approaches were quickly adopted throughout the design profession, eventually influencing the public realm and the urban quality of the city. This presentation examines the role of design in enhancing the quality of urban experience in a sub-tropical climate. By examining the city’s context, traditional vernacular and referring to examples, I aim to explore the transformative nature of design as it engages with the environmental to improve quality of life.


10) Danzhou LI

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong


The Politics of Remembering and Forgetting: Cultural Heritage Conservation in Kaohsiung Zuoying Navy Villages


On the basis of visual ethnography in Taiwan on January 2013, this paper mainly investigates hierarchical inequality reflected in official policy-making and implemental measures, under the historical backdrop that Taiwanese Veterans’ Villages (juancun) was confronting demolition and reconstruction during the process of urban renewal since from 1970s. According to reveal what has been/not been preserved in Kaohsiung Zuoying Navy Villages, the goal-oriented restoration demonstrate how state apparatus make efforts to reinvent and rebuild continuity in memory mechanism.

As major case studies, Kaohsiung Zuoying Navy Villages will be analyzed to probe into the intertwining impact between cultural heritage when Taiwan under Japanese rule and strict ranking system inside military communities along with loyal followers of Chiang Kai-shek regime retreating from mainland of China to Taiwan in 1949. For instance, as veterans’ village for settling military general of high rank, Mingde village has priority to be preserved in terms of governmental policy, aiming to transform as a spot of cultural tourism and creative industry. Through participatory observation, the most indispensable motivation to preserve Mingde village was based on heroic stories and glorious achievements of navy generals as well as Japanese-style architectures. However, for low-ranking villages, military authority compelled residents to sign endorsement for moving to a type of collective housing estate named National Building. Mother Zhang’s law-based resistance in Chongshi village, a sense of utter desolation in disappearing Fuxing village, turned to the rootless destiny of diasporic community.


Key Words: Kaohsiung Zuoying Navy Villages; Cultural Heritage Conservation; Memory Mechanism; Urban Renewal


11) Yifei LI

Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, USA


Unthinking Sustainability: Situating Urban Poverty in the Era of Sustainability  

Sustainable urban development is by definition forward-looking. Much of the current discussion about sustainable urban design focuses on how we can make cities more resilient in the face of future disasters, public health outbreaks, terrorist attacks, and the like. Urban planning and design, or urban thinking more generally, increasingly rely on projections of future events and trajectories. In this process, there is a conspicuous lack of attention to existing social problems in the city. This paper is an attempt to reintroduce the question of urban poverty, one of the central challenges facing cities, into the discussion of the sustainable city. Using empirical evidence from several Chinese cities, this paper demonstrates how sustainable urban development can have an opportunity to alleviate urban poverty. I demonstrate how some cities took advantage of sustainability policies to provide assistance to the urban poor, but some other cities chose to ignore, and further marginalize the poor in the era of sustainability. I conclude with a discussion of how urban poverty alleviation, and urban justice more generally, can be advanced as an integral component of sustainable urban development. Urban justice can be, and should be, part of our discussion of the sustainable city. Only equitable cities are truly sustainable.

12) Jackie Jia Lou

City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong


Images of Hong Kong: A sociolinguist’s attempt to understand place-identities


This paper examines the relationship between language and place-identity, defined as the aspect of self-identity consisting of a person’s cognition of the physical world in which the individual lives (Proshansky et al 1983, Myers 2006). Inspired by Kevin Lynch’s (1960) classic “The Image of the City”, this yearlong ethnography studies the linguistic and spatial practices of ten individuals in Hong Kong, including local Hong Kongers, expatriate sojourners, and mainland Chinese visitors. Through focus group discussions, interviews, participant map drawings, and observations during walks throughout the city, several images have emerged, namely ‘bubbles’, ‘itineraries’, and ‘shopping malls’. As visual representations of place-identities, these images are to a large extent shaped by the languages spoken by these individuals, as well as a multitude of social factors, such as the reversed currents of transnational migration, the development of regional tourism, and the intersection of global and local consumerism. By integrating insights and research methods from urban studies into sociolinguistics, this paper hopes to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Hong Kong identity under post-colonial conditions (Abbas 1997) by demystifying it as a homogeneous entity.



13) David McCallum

Victoria University, Australia


‘Clearing out of the away’ of Aboriginal peoples and communities in Australian cities as ways to an organized, civilized and normalized face onto the world


This paper studies exploratory tools used by professional personnel overseeing children in welfare and penal institutions in the period immediately prior to the establishment of the Melbourne Children’s Court. It provides information and analysis of institutional records, assessments, examinations and judgements on children, including Aboriginal children, during different historical periods of administration. By studying the methods by which a welfare administration comes to know and manage the child, the paper seeks to provide a better understanding of regular and enduring patterns of children transitioning from welfare to justice institutions, and contribute new insights on sociological theories of normalisation. The paper provides insights into the ‘clearing out of the away’ of Aboriginal peoples and communities as cities in Australia sought to achieve an organised, civilised and normalised face onto the world.




14) Tim Oakes

University of Colorado, USA


Producing governable space in urban China


This paper explores China’s new urban spaces of consumption, leisure, and housing through the analytic of ‘governable space.’ Based on ongoing research which examines large-scale projects redeveloping both the commercial and residential built environment in county and prefectural- level cities in Guizhou Province, the paper focuses on new leisure spaces as sites that actively seek to shape conduct in new ways, thereby producing new kinds of urban citizen-subjects. Specifically, through a collaborative mixed methods project with Guizhou-based scholars, we examine how residents use and interact with new spaces of leisure and consumption that have been created as part of larger urban redevelopments. Urban officials, we have found, often view these redevelopment projects as strategies for modernizing the post-socialist city in terms of market-oriented economic development and tourism. They also view urban redevelopment as part of a broader governance strategy of promoting ‘civilized’ cities with ‘harmonious’ development. Critical urban scholars, however, have suggested that such projects – while improving standards of living and increasing consumption for many urban residents – should also be understood as enhancing state and/or corporate power over citizens. We argue that, far from reproducing a totalizing state or corporate power, such projects consistently produce unintended outcomes, unexpected subjectivities, and unplanned effects. By employing an ‘analytics of government’ approach in three case study sites in Guizhou, we find the actual effects and outcomes of urban spatial transformation does not mesh neatly with theories of either state power or civil society.

15) Senghuat ONG

Xiao En Cultural, Malaysia


Changing “space” into a “place” for the sustainability of Chinese “minority” cultural memory in Malaysia

As the minority in South East Asia, the Chinese settlers in various towns and villages are always try to create and sustain a lot of visible feature, including many buildings and cultural activities that may remark their ethnic characteristics.  Such visible appearance also served as the legitimate symbol for the existing of “Chinese” in local history and cultural context, as well as showing the high statuses of their ancestors.  In addition to a one week program that celebrated “880 years Commemorate of Zhu Xi – ASEAN Region” in 2010, the Zhu clan organization, Chinese associations in 6 ASEAN countries and representatives from mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau participated in the erection of “Zhu Xi family teaching” upright stone tablet in Kuala Lumpur. From the local Chinese point of view, this new creation claimed to be the biggest of its type in the world that may help them to preserve the past intangible heritage of a value system for the future.  The Chinese-English bilingual upright stone tablet has become a vehicle for the cohesion and continuing of the past collective memory of Malaysian Chinese.  The new existence of the “place” also projected and enhanced the acknowledgement of Chinese participation in this capital city of Malaysia.


 16) Qiang SHENG

Lecturer, School of Architecture, Tianjin University, China

A Morphological Study on the relationship between street pattern and vitality of urban blocks –examples in central area of Beijing and Tianjin


Using Space Syntax as main tool, this paper studies the changing topological pattern of street network in Beijing and Tianjin in last century. It reveals the impact of rapid urban development on street fabrics. The result shows that the introverted complex street structure (as traditional Chinese pattern) and the extroverted regular grid (as typical Western pattern) have different resilience under this impact. Furthermore, base on the detailed mapping of local shops inside 179 urban blocks and 114 blocks in Beijing and Tianjin respectively, this paper demonstrates a clear relationship between topological pattern of block and the vitality, and how Chinese culture can influence the appropriation of different types of street pattern.


17) Jiangmin XU

Winston-Salem State University, USA

Retirement Community, Elderly Healthcare Services, Senior Housing and Racial Disparities in the U.S


There are three types of senior living communities in the U.S: independent living communities for seniors with little need for assistance, assisted living communities for seniors who need limited assistance, and nursing homes for seniors who need skilled nursing care. There are also options for seniors whose residence is outside of senior living communities such as short-term care, home care, and even adult day care. These types of senior living communities not only provide senior housing, but also provide support and assistance to aging residents. Importantly they create a senior living community and promote an active lifestyle. There are senior living communities in the style of single-family homes, condo-style housing, or apartment living; and there are 55+ communities, low-income communities, and communities that specialize in dementia and Alzheimer’s care.  However, ethnic and racial disparities have been an issue in the senior living communities. The direct negative results are the persistent inequities in access to quality health care for ethnic and racial aging minorities in the U.S. Therefore, this study will be the first of many to investigate the importance of improving community services and diversifying the health professions in order to meet the various needs of elders.


18) Hai YU, Xiangming Chen, Xiaohua Zhong

Fudan University, China; Trinity College, USA; Tongji University, China


A Street “Miracle”: The Local State, Communal Entrepreneurship and Global Investors in the Makingand Remaking of Tianzifang, Shanghai


The study of global cities is becoming endlessly richer and more complex. Depending on how and where a researcher looks in a dynamic global city like Shanghai, one is likely to encounter a piece of urban life that puzzles, intrigues and then begs the question of why. The underlying phenomenon or process that triggers the question is often so deeply contextualized and layered that it defies the use of an established theoretical or analytical framework, especially if the latter has originated out of context. This challenge directs the investigation back to a deeper probe into the local phenomenon for more inductive insights that may in turn lead to new theoretical development (see Hall, 2011).

A rapidly globalizing and transforming megacity, Shanghai offers a myriad of fascinating urban phenomena for in-depth study; the city is indeed a paradise for urbanites. However, much of the existing work on Shanghai exhibits three tendencies: 1) looking from the structural perspective and macro-scale down; 2) privileging the role of the state in large-scale urban redevelopment; and 3) paying little attention to the intersections between economic, cultural and spatial dynamics in the remaking of places. We attempt to redress these deficiencies through an in-depth case study of Tianzifang that provides countervailing and alternative evidence for filling a large vacuum in research on Shanghai. Despite being a confined shopping street or district, Tianzifang can stretch our theoretical horizon regarding globalization, migration and gentrification and extend useful comparative references to other shopping streets covered in this book and beyond.


The first section introduces how Tianzifang came into existence and the changing circumstance that have facilitated its early evolution. Section 2 looks at both the willing and go-along support from the local state for Tianzifang, and how this support has steered small global investors and local entrepreneurs to sustain the area’s relative vitality. The next section examines the scaling of individual residents leasing to merchants to a sort of communal or collective entrepreneurship. Section 4 focuses on the growth and development of street merchants in Tianzifang and the increasing diversity and complication of this growth that has challenged its original artistic orientation and continued economic vitality. The next section examines the impact of globalization on Tianzifang through the entry and business practices of varied overseas business owners. In conclusion, we make sense from Tianzifang’s development for how it may fare in the future.   


19) A. Arda Yüceyilmaz

Adnan Menderes University, Turkey


Urbanization Movements in the Reformation Times: A Comparison between China and Turkey Cases


Cities are the concrete structures which we built ourselves in. However those “concrete structures” express much more than the hundreds of kilometers of motorways, sidewalks and tons of steel and glass. Such that cities represent the context of which political and economic systems communicate with society. This kind of “communication” is apparent at most level during the administrative and political reform periods.


In this framework both China and Turkey, as the political and economic reform implementers of the recent decades, are interesting cases of which indicate that hypothesis. So this study aims to explore the linkages between urbanization movements and administrative, political reform periods (reformation times) in the case of China and Turkey with a comparative approach.



20) Peter Zabielskis

University of Macau, Macau


Preservation / Anti-preservation:  Theorizing cross-purposes indevelopment / re-development / hospitality / people-friendliness


The path to problems is paved with good intentions.  This paper attempts to theorize what may well be a number of inherent conflicts between the six dynamics of heritage protection mentioned in the title.  Attempting to move beyond and deeper than any simple consideration of a clash between desires to preserve the old and to develop the new, it discusses how “too much” of any one agenda can dialectically trigger undesirable backlashes from other interests and concerns, all of which are well intentioned.   Contested sets of issues analyzed include the following questions:  How and why do some projects attempt to revitalize or re-develop locations or communities even if they are not broken?   At what point does hospitality and the development of services to outside visitors impinge on the rights and aspirations of local inhabitants to use and create meaning in their own public spaces?  Despite increased attention to non-tangible heritage preservation, why is the publicly visible still so often prioritized over more intimate, private, small, or unseen uses of skills, services, knowledge and memories that the experience of place fosters in the lives of local inhabitants?   These issues will be discussed in terms of concerns about scale (big or small business interests), participation (sources of power and decision-making in development planning), and the multiple locations of meaning and its assertion (the uses of history).  Cases examined are drawn from the author’s experience in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, and Macau SAR, People’s Republic of China.


21) Yahua ZHANG

University of Southern Queensland, Australia

Airport city development in the 21st century


Globalisation and economic integration in the new century imply that an airport of a city is no longer just a facility which people travel through. It could also be an economic hub that people travel to and a place where people can live, work and shop. An airport is usually 15-40 kilometres away from the city centre and could be developed into a multi-functional airport city as a good complement to the existing city centre.  An airport city could be supported by core aviation businesses, aviation related businesses and non-aviation businesses, and surrounded by offices, hotels, banks, convention centres, hospitals, shopping centres, free trade zones and entertainment facilities. Developing airport cities will not only facilitate the flow of goods and people, but also give a new impetus to economic growth in the adjacent regions in the many years to come. This paper will review the recent studies on the airport city concept and look at some successful examples around the world. The strategies and experiences could be applied in China whose several major cities including Beijing and Shanghai are developing their own airport cities or airport towns.


22) Xiaohua ZHONG, Ph.D. Department of Sociology, School of Political Science and International Relations, Tongji University, China

Huaiyun KOU, Ph.D. Shanghai Tongji Urban Planning and Design Institute, China


Evaluating Public-participation in the Practices of Historic Preservation: A Case Study of Xijie Block


Abstract: The concept of public participation is one of the growing interest in developing China. However, for the differences among the purposes and results of varieties of cases, it is difficult to define and evaluate the merits and effectiveness of participation. Especially in the practices of historic preservation, the demands and Evaluation criteria of the mass always meet conflicts with the ones of professionals and local governments. Our research choose Xijie block (Dujiangyan, Sichuan province) as a case, the preservation and renewal of the block is under the background of post-earthquake reconstruction, distinguished from the government-led urban development happened across China in the past three decades.  To some extent, Xijie has become an experimental area for public participation. According to Sherry R. Arnstein’s ladder of participation, almost all levels and types of public participation appeared in the case. This essay tries to define the merits and effectiveness of public participation in historic preservation and develop appropriate measurement instruments and processes. 


23) Daria Zueva

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

Heritage protection models for symbolically embedded domestic architecture: comparing Russian and Chinese practices

Emotion of personal belonging and identity plays a significant role in forming urban life quality.  Increasing the intimacy and symbolism of the place is a tool for shaping and enforcing affectionate feelings to the urban object. Heritage protection is one of the formal ways to strengthen the special status and to indicate symbolic meaning of the place.

According to P. Bourdieu, symbols are set by agents holding prominent amount of cultural capital. We argue that heritage protection policy is a result of social structure of cultural capital holders and is subject to current social representation of the site. We regard heritage standpoints as presentation of symbolic power in the city.


The study analyses the role of social factors influencing the way of treating the urban heritage associated with special periods in modern history. Comparison is made between Chinese and Russian (USSR by time of emerging) domestic architecture. Current ways of using these sites (left as domestic architecture for locals, turned to a commercial site or to luxurious apartments etc.) and social dialogue on their faith could be used as indicators of its’ symbolic social representation. As S. Boym puts it, “the imagined community of the nation is based as much on shared forgetting as on shared history”. Thus, both protection and abandonment of the sites matter for the research.